In the University of Michigan Affirmative Action Cases the Supreme Court
Adjacent to the University of Michigan campus is the Trotter Multicultural Center, a space created by the university to promote the development of a “better understanding and appreciation of the multicultural diversity represented at the university.” In 2015, the university received a strong boost from the “Being Black at Michigan” movement to create a more central multicultural center on campus and student life. As a result, in late 2015, the University of Michigan announced a new $10 million multicultural center that would be integrated into the heart of the campus.  Further progress was made in the planning and construction of this project in 2017.  “I believe that these affirmative action decisions will go down in history as one of the great historical decisions of the Supreme Court. And I`m proud of the voice that the University of Michigan has given in this important debate. We fought for the very principle that defines the size of our country. Year after year, this proves our student body and now the court has confirmed it: our diversity is our strength. In Schuette v. 2014 Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, the Supreme Court ruled 6-2 that Michigan`s constitutional amendment prohibiting affirmative action is constitutional.  Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) is a Supreme Court case in which the University of Michigan School of Law denied entry to Barbara Grutter, a student with a cumulative grade point average of 3.8 and an LSAT score of 161.
She sued the university, and then-president Lee Bollinger was the accused. Grutter argued that she had been discriminated against because of her race, which ran counter to the 14th anniversary of the 14th century. The amendment would be violated and rejected because the university used race as one of the factors for admission. She also argued that the University of Michigan has no compelling interest in using the race to grant admission to minority students. The University of Michigan (Bollinger) School of Law disagreed, saying there was a compelling state interest in taking racist positive steps to build a “critical mass” of minority students. In Justice Powell`s diversity ration, the Supreme Court stated, “Student body diversity is a higher interest of the state that can justify the use of race in university admission.”  They see this policy as positive because it increases diversity on campus and does not allow anyone to feel isolated on campus. The two separate cases at the University of Michigan reflected two distinct systems of race-conscious approvals. Law school took the path that Justice Lewis Powell had praised in 1978 in his 1978 opinion in the landmark Supreme Court case in which he upheld the use of race in admission. In Regents of the University of California v.
Bakke, Powell wrote that using race as one of many factors when examining an individual was the ideal way to make approvals. But the undergraduate school challenged by Gratz used a grading system; The system required that blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and low-income candidates be automatically awarded 20 points. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the controversial ban on affirmative action on admissions to Michigan`s public colleges in a divided opinion released Tuesday morning, preserving a law that University of Michigan officials say has contributed to declining minority enrollment at the state`s flagship college. And that`s what the university did. In the first few years after the school change, black and Latino students moved around 1,750 (8%) and 1,100 (6%) respectively. “Then, shortly after, Ward Connerly came to the state,” Krislov says. Information about the cases can be found online on www.umich.edu/~urel/admissions/ including a full timeline of key decisions in the cases and other affirmative action lawsuits in higher education that responded to the news of the court`s decision under www.umich.edu/~urel/admissions/faqs/chronology.html U-M President Mary Sue Coleman: In addition, another group of students called “Students 4″ organized Justice” a petition with 835 signatures, the direct support of Federal President Schlissel mainly through university policy. Some of these demands included “the declaration of solidarity with us as black students and students of color.” Create a permanent and designated space on the central campus for black and colored students to organize and ensure social justice. This is not the same as the Trotter Multicultural Center, as we want a space dedicated exclusively to organizing communities and working for social justice specifically for people of color.  The Supreme Court`s decision is a blow to diversity efforts at U-M in Ann Arbor, which has been criticized for its low minority enrollment rate. While Stevens, Souter, Ginsburg and Breyer agreed with O`Connor, Rehnquist, Kennedy, Scalia and Thomas disagreed.
The dissent argued that the use of race as a factor in admission decisions was indeed a way to promote a quota system, and that it should now be illegal not to use racist affirmative action plans in 25 years. Because the university had to reduce the likelihood of resistance that would have arisen through an affirmative action program exclusively for African Americans, they decided to open a program in March 1964 that was open to all students. It mainly focused on those with an environment with a disadvantaged socio-economic status. The program was more concerned with the assessment of high school counsellors than with their cumulative grade point average and standardized test scores. There is also an option that allows students to conduct an interview with an admissions counselor. And once they are approved as part of the program, they receive a scholarship that covers most of their expenses. They called it the Opportunity Awards Program (OPP). The court heard on the 15th. In October 2013, arguments on Proposal 2 and a host of students from Michigan and the D.C. gathered in front of the court to support affirmative action. When Krislov arrived at the University of Michigan in 1998, there were 1,944 full-time black students, or about 9 percent of the total campus population, according to the National Center for Education Statistics.
Four percent of the student body were Latinos, and that number had begun to rise after a few years of decline. Year after year, the university has become for the most part more diverse. And much of that diversity, said Krislov, now president of Pace University, was due to the active consideration of race while considering the admission of students. Gratz v. Bollinger (2003) is a U.S. Supreme Court case involving two Caucasian students who applied to the University of Michigan for undergraduate admission but were denied admission because of their race. The case involved the affirmative action policy for admission to the University of Michigan, where, based on a points system for admission, minority students received extra points based on their race, while white students did not. With a maximum of 150 points attainable, one would receive an additional 20 points for belonging to an underrepresented ethnic group and would ultimately be admitted if they met other basic conditions for admission. Affirmative action refers to activities or strategies aimed at helping groups that are often affected by discrimination to achieve equal access to opportunities, particularly in areas such as employment and education. In the early 2000s, the use of race, gender, and other factors in decisions about college and university admissions came under attack. The University of Michigan was repeatedly sued by students who felt they were denied admission because they were white, and the idea of eliminating measures that gave preferential treatment to women, minorities and others gained momentum.
In 2006, voters approved Proposition 2 — also known as the Michigan Civil Rights Initiative — which “amended the Michigan Constitution to prohibit public institutions from discriminating against or favoring groups or individuals in public education, public employment, or public contracts based on their race, gender, colour, ethnic origin or national origin”. As a result, the university was prohibited from considering race as part of its holistic admission process. Minority enrolment declined and the university was forced to develop alternative strategies to increase diversity among its students. But Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg had a different view. In her dissenting opinion, she wrote, “If honesty is the best policy, Michigan`s well-described and fully disclosed academic affirmative action program is certainly better than reaching similar numbers through winks, nods, and disguises.” Isn`t it better, she asked, to be honest about what you do in admission instead of obscuring it? Meanwhile, the Union of Black Students and other U-M student groups condemned the low minority enrollment rate in the school and called for 10 percent black representation on campus. The demand is a jump from the current 4.6 percent of black enrollment, but it is in line with promises the university made to black students in the 1970s. . .